Maratha King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj


The rise of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the Marathas is an important factor in the history of India. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj(1627-1680 A.D.) was the founder of the Maratha kingdom.  He was greatly inspired by the heroes of Hindu mythologies and he considered it his mission to liberate India from Islamic rulers.  At a young age, he conquered the forts of Torna, Raighad, and Purandar. He used the guerrilla tactics to confront even the mightiest of the empires (that of Moghul emperor Aurangeb) India had known.  He imposed a land tax called Chauth on the kingdoms he conquered and use it to build a powerful Hindu army. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was a brave and able administrator, and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir), and internal intelligence. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj died at the age of 52 on April 3, 1680, at the Raigad Fort

Childhood & Early Life

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born on February 19, 1630 to Shahaji Bhosle and Jijabai in the fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar of the Pune district. Shivaji’s father Shahaji was in service of the Bijapuri Sultanate - a tripartite association between Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda, as a general. He also owned a Jaigirdari near Pune. Shivaji’s mother Jijabai was the daughter of Sindkhed leader Lakhujirao Jadhav and a deeply religious woman. Shivaji was especially close to his mother who instilled in him a strict sense of right and wrong. Since Shahaji spent most of his time outside of Pune, the responsibility of overseeing Shivaji’s education rested on the shoulders of a small council of ministers which included a Peshwa (Shamrao Nilkanth),a Mazumdar (Balkrishna Pant), a Sabnis (Raghunath Ballal), a Dabir (Sonopant) and a chief teacher (Dadoji Konddeo). Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to train Shivaji in military and martial arts. Shivaji was married to Saibai Nimbalkar in 1640.



Timeline of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's Life


1627

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj born in the hill fort of Shivneri.


1643-47

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's overran the hill forts of Kondana, Torana and Raigarh.


1647

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's Guardian Dadaji Khondev died..


1656

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj conquered Javli from Chandra Rao More.


1657

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj came into conflict with the Moghuls for the first time by making raids into Ahmednagar.


1659

Afzal Khan of Bijapur was killed by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.


1663

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj made an attack on Shaistakhan's camp and wounded him.


1666

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj escaped from Agra.


1674

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj crowned himself at Raighad and assumed the title of Maharaja Chhatrapati.


1676

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj s last campaign against Jijapuri Karnataka. Captured Jinji and Vellore.


1680

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj died.


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